Dedicated to Bakir and Milica
My best friend and my wife are making a website with Django, and I’m sometimes helping them in that adventure. One of the things they had to implement was image upload. It’s super easy to do it in Django, because it’s just a matter of adding an ImageField to a model class. By default, these images are persisted as files on a local filesystem. This is a horrible default in my opinion, so I had to intervene and do two things:
- Switch to using Azure blob storage for storing images
- Do it in a secure way (without ever having to handle Azure access keys in code)
The first item is very easy to accomplish. The second one is slightly more difficult to do, and it’s the main topic of this post. I don’t want to go into details that are already explained elsewhere on the internet, so I’ll assume that you are at least somewhat familiar with Django and Azure (especially virtual machines, blob storage, and role-based access control).
Using Azure blob storage backend
pip install django-storages[azure]
After that, you can add the following lines to your Django settings:
DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE = 'storages.backends.azure_storage.AzureStorage' AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME = 'your_azure_account_name' AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY = 'your_azure_account_key' AZURE_CONTAINER = 'your_azure_container'
Voilà! All your images will from now on be saved as blobs in the Azure storage container of your choice. The problem with this approach is that now you have to keep your account key secure, which is not so trivial to accomplish.
If you open your storage account page in the Azure portal, and go to Settings -> Access keys, you will see the following recommendation:
Store your access keys securely - for example, using Azure Key Vault - and don’t share them. We recommend regenerating your access keys regularly.
You can’t go wrong with using Azure Key Vault, so this is a really good general approach for storing application secrets. In this case, however, we can achieve our security goal in a much simpler way.
Using Azure managed identities
Managed identities for Azure resources is an awesome Azure feature that allows you to authenticate to other Azure services without storing credentials in your code. In a nutshell, a managed identity is simply a special type of service principal: you can assign some roles to it, and then attach it to your compute resource (for example, virtual machine, scale set, or App Service). After you enable an identity on a service instance, you can request the access token from the Azure Instance Metadata service, and then use that token to authenticate to one of the services that support managed identities.
I won’t go into details about configuring your infrastructure to use managed identities, since Azure documentation is already doing a great job in that regard:
- Use a Linux VM system-assigned managed identity to access Azure Storage
- Use a Windows VM system-assigned managed identity to access Azure Storage
In essence, you have to do the following:
- Enable managed identity on a VM
- Create a storage account
- Create a blob container in the storage account
- Grant a managed identity access to the storage account (for example, using the Storage Blob Data Contributor role)
- Get an access token from a VM
- Use the access token for authentication
The tutorials I’ve linked will guide you through the first four of these six steps using the Azure portal, but they will only show you how to work with access tokens using Azure SDK for C#. In the next section I’ll explain how to work with access tokens using Python.
Tying it all together
Azure documentation for managed identities does not state this anywhere, but there is an official package from Microsoft called msrestazure that you can use to acquire the access token:
from msrestazure.azure_active_directory import MSIAuthentication token_credential = MSIAuthentication(resource='https://storage.azure.com')
You can now use this token credential to authenticate to any Azure service that accepts Azure Active Directory authentication. For example, you can access your storage account by creating an instance of BlockBlobService:
from azure.storage.blob import BlockBlobService service = BlockBlobService(account_name, token_credential=token_credential)
And how do you use this access token with django-storages? In addition to already mentioned AZURE_ACCOUNT_KEY, django-storages library also offers a parameter called AZURE_TOKEN_CREDENTIAL:
A token credential used to authenticate HTTPS requests. The token value should be updated before its expiration.
When you first read this description, it might not be super obvious how it is supposed to be used, but this parameter will in fact accept the access token we have previously obtained! Now we can simply add this to our Django settings:
from msrestazure.azure_active_directory import MSIAuthentication DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE = 'storages.backends.azure_storage.AzureStorage' AZURE_ACCOUNT_NAME = 'your_azure_account_name' AZURE_CONTAINER = 'your_azure_container' AZURE_TOKEN_CREDENTIAL = MSIAuthentication(resource='https://storage.azure.com')
And that’s all! In just a few lines of code, we have implemented a simple, elegant, and secure way to upload files from Django to Azure blob storage. May God guide you in your quest!